By ROSA VALLEJOS YOPÁN
This dissertation is a accomplished grammar of Kokama-Kokamilla (KK), as spoken by way of approximately a thousand elders within the Peruvian Amazon. It offers particular documentation of the constructions of the language and the features they serve, with wealthy exemplification. This research relies on major fieldwork considering the fact that 1997, permitting the research to be grounded in textual content info. considered one of KK's so much salient typological good points is a morphological contrast among female and male speech in different grammatical different types. significant grammatical different types like individual, quantity, demanding, and modality are conveyed by way of positionally mounted clitics. 5 annoying clitics encode 3 levels of distance into the earlier and into the long run. There also are six epistemic modal clitics, which engage to create a four-way modal approach. not one of the twelve suffixes is compulsory, yet, in language use, as many as 4 can happen jointly on a unmarried verb, by means of as much as clitics. Syntactically, KK has intransitive and transitive clauses, yet semantically three-place predicates are syntactically encoded through transitive clauses. There are six directive buildings that distinguish levels of pragmatic strength. one other noteworthy element is the a number of different types of function clause which fluctuate by way of coreference, managed via the matrix clause absolutive argument instead of the topic. Clause nominalization is a imperative subordination procedure, relatively in relativization, that's principally accomplished through an absolutive nominalizer. Pragmatically, KK has structures that explicitly distinguish subtypes of concentration in response to scope (narrow/broad) and pragmatic info (contrastive/noncontrastive). This bears on theories approximately no matter if distinction easily emerges from conversational implicature, as opposed to may be explicitly coded via committed grammar. details constitution additionally explains the distribution of alternating pronominal varieties and constituent orders. even though lengthy labeled as Tupí-Guaraní, fresh resear
xxix, 918 p. : sick. (some col.), maps
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Additional info for A grammar of Kokama-Kokamilla
Raepetsui ikia ɨkɨratsenkɨra ay uwari. Ra uwari wepe napitsarakɨra… Ikian wayna yaparachita ramɨmɨrakɨra: ta uwaritsuriay, ta uwakatsuriay awara ikian kukuna ɨpatsuka. Tɨmapura ta chirarutsu tsukuri, ta chirarutsu kukama. Raepetsui, kukamakana katupe ikian ɨpatsu tsɨmaran kukunakanatsui, ikian tsukurikɨratsui, rikua ra chirara ikian kukama. Raepetsui ikian wayna yaparachita ra mɨmɨrakɨra: kukamakɨra, kukamakɨra. Uriaka ra kumitsa, ra kumitsa tsupara. Ra kumitsa: kukamiriakɨra, kukamiriakɨra. Rikua Kukamiria riay emete… you here?
Finally, Chapter XII offers a summary of 4 the major findings of this study in the form of conclusions. The abbreviations used in this document are listed in Appendix A. 3. 1. About the origins of the words Kokama and Kokamilla When the KKs are asked about their origins, there is a high chance they will tell you a traditional story. What follows are portions of a story told by Victor Yuyarima Chota (65 year old at the time of the recording), which contain an explanation of the origins of the KK.
First, children are no longer learning the language, as natural processes of language transmission have been interrupted. pg=00142 31 1000) of the total population speaks the language; the majority has already shifted to Spanish. Third, the remaining speakers are elderly people spread accross small villages. Fourth, the speakers use the language to speak amongst themselves, but only in very restricted situations, such as traditional events and intimate meetings. Fifth, there seems to be no motivation among the youth to learn the language and there is no regular use of the language in new domains, such as the media, except for some sporadic initiatives, such as campaigns in the radio.