A Literary Review (Penguin Classics) aka "Two Ages" by Søren Kierkegaard

By Søren Kierkegaard

Ostensibly, A Literary Review is a simple observation through Soren Kierkegaard at the paintings of a latest novelist. On deeper degrees, despite the fact that, it turns into the existential philosopher's far-reaching critique of his society and age, and its apocalyptic ultimate sections encouraged the imperative principles in Martin Heidegger's influential paintings Being and Time. Embraced by way of many readers as prophetic, A Literary Review and its recommendations stay appropriate to our present debates on id, habit, and social conformity.

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So then there is such a thing as a repe­ tition [ Gjentagelsen] . When does it come about? Well, that's not so easy to say in any human language [ ikke godt at sige i noget menneskeligt The Exception as Reinforcement of the Ethical Norm sprag] 31 When did it come for Job? When all conceivable human certi­ tude and probah ility pronounced it impossible. ' 5 . From silence comes the most radical form of change and true repetition. From silence (a privileged relationship with God) comes the possibility of a new form of action, a form of positive repetition through faith.

Yet, the preceding quote references only "the highest val­ ues," those values that claim transcendency in the light of historical reality, for they self-destruct in the evolutionary process that led to Nietzsche. These "highest values" are pre­ cisely those that the title of Beyond Good and Evil references, for Nietzsche has no contention with those adjudications he terms good and bad. Nietzsche's position, derivative as it is from the death of God (metaphysics), is one that will not accept axiological judgments that proclaim the mantle of absoluteness.

Silence returns to play its role as an indicator of the possibili­ ties of speech: it is the basis of the secret that defies universal ethics. The relationship between language, silence, and the critique of ethics will be clearer after a discussion of the cate­ gory of the "test" (PrIVelse) . Essentially, as this category is transcendent, it belongs nei­ ther to immanent knowledge nor to language, ergo neither to aesthetics, ethics, nor dogmatic questions. Demonstrating Dominic Desroches Job's situation, the test "places the human in a personal oppo­ sitional relation to God [stetter Mennesket I et reent personligt Modstetteningsforhold til God] ,,, I I writes Constantin.

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