By by Carl Robert Whitehead.
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Additional resources for A reference grammar of Menya : an Angan language of Papua New Guinea
Whereas the personal pronouns given in Table 8 are used for both subject and object arguments, the unmarked forms of the demonstrative pronouns given in Table 11 are only used for subject NPs. For the object, a clitic is added which varies according to number: generally =d ‘SG’, =h ‘DL’ and =t ‘PL’, as in (52). 4). Table 12 gives the object and genitive equivalents of the masculine forms from Table 11. It will be noted that there are again two genitive suffixes but that the second is =t« rather than =x`p«.
28 The morphemes I am referring to here as portmanteau systematically encode two elements of meanings such as 1) tense and aspect and 2) person, number and irrealis. This is in contrast to morphemes which idiosyncratically encode two elements of meaning which are generally encoded in the language by separate morphemes such as French au and aux. 28 Clausal negation is indicated by the prefix l`- on the verb. However, while this prefix can occur on any verb form, it almost always occurs on a deverbalized form which is followed by one of two verbs bearing the relevant further suffixation.
Whether the OBJECT, when there is one, is always a logical object is a matter of how ‘affected by the event’ is interpreted. A RECIPIENT in Menya always has precedence over a PATIENT in being assigned the OBJECT function and is cross-referenced on the verb as the AFFECTEE. I will not address the question of whether the recipient in such cases is the logical object. 3 Role discrimination: verb agreement & case marking This section will briefly outline the encoding of these functions or roles in the Menya clause.