By Nicole Nau
Latgalian is a neighborhood language of Latvia in imperative Europe, frequently utilized by an anticipated variety of 150,000 audio system. Genetically it belongs to the japanese Baltic department of Indo-European. whereas its shut courting to Latvian is obvious in simple vocabulary and inflectional morphemes, there also are major ameliorations within the phonology, morphology and syntax of the 2 languages, because of divergent improvement throughout the seventeenth - nineteenth c., whilst Latgalia used to be politically and culturally separated from different Latvian territories. in addition, touch with Slavic languages (Polish, Belarusian, Russian) has performed an immense function within the historical past of Latgalian.
Typologically salient good points of Latgalian comprise morphophonological concord with an competition of again vs. entrance vowels and smooth (palatalized or alveolar) vs. difficult consonants, a wide stock of non-finite verb types, genitive vs. accusative marking of direct gadgets, dative marking of fundamental middle arguments in numerous structures, using non-finite predicates in represented speech, and the life of a unique logophoric pronoun relating the speaker of a pronounced discourse.
Nicole Nau is professor of Baltic languages and linguistics at Adam Mickiewicz college in Pozna?, Poland. She can be the writer of LWM 217: Latvian.
ISBN 9783862880553. Languages of the World/Materials 482. 120pp. 2011
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Extra resources for A short grammar of Latgalian
PL of gaidieju Wait: PST: 1SG reit-a stuovieju vqan-u morning-G stand:PST: 1SG Vifani-G staceja i station-Land vijcil)-a. PL kast-is, kur box-G where meklej search:PRS:3 vTn-a, sov-a. V l ~OL.. i caj-a vys-i dzeiv-i palyka. ' (KurS) pareizi juo-atbijd iz 3 vaicuojum-u. ' (IS) Some reflexive verbs govern a genitive object that does not have the characteristics of direct objects (behaviour in passive and debitive constructions), for example beitzs 'fear, be afraid of' . With these verbs accusative marking is not found, instead, the genitive competes with a prepositional phrase (beitzs nu 'be afraid of').
Details will be given in the following subsections. 1. Verbal clauses with a nominative subject Most verbs in Latgalian combine with a nominative subject. Depending on the verbform there is agreement between subject and predicate with respect to either person&number or number and gender; some verb-forms don' t have agreement markers. The subject may be omitted if it is recoverable from the context; first person subjects are often omitted. Otherwise clauses without an overt subject and the finite verb in 3rd person form have a general reading of 'human actor' (as English one) .
1 Clause types and case assignment Different structural types of · clauses may be distinguished along the following parameters: (a) whether the predicate is a lexical verb, the existential verb byut 'be' , or a nonverbal lexical element (with or without a verbal copula); (b) whether the primary core argument is a nominative subject or a dative-marked argument; a third rather small group is formed by clauses without primary core argument. The types distinguished by these criteria show differences with respect to agreement marking and behavioural properties of the primary core argument and case marking in negated clauses.