A Student Grammar of Euskara by Jon D. Patrick & Ilari Zubiri Ibarrondo

By Jon D. Patrick & Ilari Zubiri Ibarrondo

This booklet is a realistic instruction manual of the grammar of the basque language. it truly is geared toward the 1st 3 years of a school basque language curriculum. The booklet is outfitted at the large subject different types outlined by way of HABE as vital for the 1st four degrees of basque language competence. The authors' adventure of attending sessions on the better degrees of 5-12 were drawn directly to be certain the rest most typical language gains scholar could be uncovered to on the street, from tv programmes, newspapers and radio. Competency in the entire contents of the publication could determine a scholar was once on the uppermost finish of the dimensions of second language speaker competency. a special characteristic of the textual content is its explanatory kind. each one subject is mentioned after which a chain of sentence examples in basque are awarded besides their english translation. In overall there are approximately 2300 instance pairs of sentences within the e-book. Importantly each one instance is used to target a selected element of the language. to help the coed targeted notes are additional to English translations to give an explanation for version within the translation from the literal shape. The ebook additionally incorporates a set of Appendices of the auxiliary verb pardigms in a clearest layout but released. additionally it incorporates a set of Appendices of the commonest types of compound and artificial verbs. Chapters: 1. PHONETICS - FONETIKA. 2. creation TO MORPHOLOGY - MORFOLOGIARI SARRERA. three. DECLENSION - DEKLINABIDEA. four. MORPHOLOGY - MORFOLOGIA. five. THE VERB - ADITZA. 6. SYNTAX - SINTAXIS. 7. NOTIONS / components - NOZIOAK

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Here are some examples: ZER ordu_ da? ZEIN mahaC eraman behar du? ZEIN medikuRENGANA joan zara? Bietako zeinEK apurtu du hau? ZENBAT emakume_ etorri da/dira? ZENBAT kilometroTARA dago? ZENBATEK daki egia? What time is iI? Which table has to be taken? Which doctor have you gone to? Which of the two has tom th i s ? How many women have come? How many ki lometres (away) i s iI? : How many know the truth? 1 . NUMBERS - Zenbakiak MUGAGABEA, is usual ly u sed with numbers, but when they are used with the defi nite form they carry a diHerent meani n g (see 7 ,9), For example: The indeflnite form, Plural Indefl n i te HIRU exteETAN HIRU etxeTAN : in the three houses : in three houses So be earcful with numbers, si nce cach ease expresses different th i ngs.

How? how? Interrogatives ean also be declined. Here are some examples: NOR? NORK? NORI? NOREN? NOREKIN? : : : : : who? { nominative } who? { ergative } to whom? { dative } whose? { possessive } with who? { assoeiative } ZER? ZERK? ZERI? ZEREN? ZEREKIN? : : : : : what? { nominative } what? { ergative } to what? { dative } from what? { possessive } with what? { assoeiative } The interrogatives NOR, ZER and ZEIN present two forms, one for the singular and the other for the plural. Sing. Plur. NO R?

The English equivalent to mugagabe is usually achieved by using a plural form of the noun, and the ambiguity is unresolved from a grammatical point of view. g. gure IRAKALSE_maiteA : our beloved teacher). In this case, a particular teacher is being referred to, therefore the article "A" affects the entire unit. GeneraUy in Euskara a noun phrase requires a determiner and unlike English gure is not a determiner, hence it is necessary to use "A" as the determiner for this phrase. Later we wil l explore more cases where the indefinite form is used.

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