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Additional info for Advanced Grammar in Use (2nd Edition)
13 attention was drawn to correspondences of the then-when type, and we may now consider the wA-words of English (see Note b) as a special set of pro-forms diametrically opposed to the others in having the general meaning 'It has not been known what this item refers to and so it needs to be stated in full'. This informal statement will account for the use of wA-forms in questions: Mary is in London Mary is there Where is Mary ? 7 Jf): The place where Mary lives is London Through the use of wA-forms we can ask for the identification of the subject, object, complement or an adverbial of a sentence.
25), for example. 5 ff. 3 Instead, we shall turn to an alternative division of predicate into four important and for the most part obviously distinct units. 2-6 on disjuncts and conjuncts. The four units are verb, complement, object, and adverbial, 36 The sentence: a preliminary view here abbreviated as V, C, O, A; together with the subject (S), they constitute the elements of sentence (and clause) structure: John (S) carefully (A) searched (V) the room (O) [I] The girl (S) is(V) now (A) a student (C) at a large university (A)  His brother (S) grew(V) happier (Q gradually (A)  It (S) rained (V) steadily (A) all day (A)  He (S) had given (V) the girl (O) an apple (0)  They(S) make(V) him(0) the chairman (C) every year (A)  Even these few examples illustrate some important facts about the units which are distinguished in them.
37 It may help to see variation in terms of the relationships depicted opposite, where both the verticals represent a 'more-or-less' opposition. The upper pole of the first vertical corresponds to the features of greatest uniformity, such as the invariable past tense of bring in the educated variety of English, or the many features characterizing the main stable common core of the language, such as the position of the article in a noun phrase. 36. 2l). This appears to be a natural state of affairs in language.