By Josh Gregory,Kathleen Petelinsek
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Extra resources for Adverbs
In -a take the same endings as stems in j, except that statua takes GDLsg. in -i or -y and Npl. in -y: idea idea (vowel-stem) Sg. Pl. N idea idee G idei idei D idei ideom A ide´ idee I ideà ideami L idei ideach V ideo idee statua statue (vowel-stem) Sg. Pl. N statua statuy G statuy (or -i) statui D statui statuom A statu´ statuy I statuà statuami L statui statuach V statuo statuy The word posàg is more often used for ‘statue’, thereby avoiding the awkwardness of the declension of statua. 56 4. 3.
Pl. N koza kozy G kozy kóz D kozie kozom A koz´ kozy I kozà kozami L kozie kozach V kozo kozy ˝ona wife (n-stem) Sg. Pl. N ˝ona ˝ony G ˝ony ˝on D ˝onie ˝onom A ˝on´ ˝ony I ˝onà ˝onami L ˝onie ˝onach V ˝ono ˝ony szko∏a school (∏-stem, o: ó) Sg. Pl. N szko∏a szko∏y G szko∏y szkó∏ D szkole szko∏om A szko∏´ szko∏y I szko∏à szko∏ami L szkole szko∏ach V szko∏o szko∏y góra mountain (r-stem) Sg. Pl. N góra góry G góry gór D górze górom A gór´ góry I górà górami L górze górach V góro góry siostra sister (r-stem, o: ó) Sg.
Primary: Shifted: ′+n/m, Ø+n/m | ´/à en | ´ ´ | à MOBILE VOWELS 35 Whether the vowel from ′+n/m or Ø+n/m will be ´ or à is either unpredictable, or is governed by grammatical factors rather than by phonological environment. In practice, mobile ´ occurs most often. Mobile ´/à is usually found in verb conjugation. Here are some examples in some verb roots, where it makes most sense to assume that the vowel is first ´, changing to à before consonant+Ø: Stem: dØm- puff g Øn- bend p′n- pin t′n- cut wØz′m- take zacz′n- begin ˝′m- press ˝′n- reap Form before -∏-a, showing ´: d´∏a gi´∏a pi´∏a ci´∏a wzi´∏a zacz´∏a ˝´∏a ˝´∏a Form before -∏-Ø, showing à: dà∏ già∏ pià∏ cià∏ wzià∏ zaczà∏ ˝à∏ ˝à∏ Form before -´, showing n/m: dm´ gn´ pn´ tn´ wezm´ zaczn´ ˝m´ ˝n´ In g Øn-∏-a: gi´∏a, one assumes the same R4 replacement (g: g′) before ´ that one finds before è.