An introduction to direct methods : the most important phase by H Schenk; International Union of Crystallography

By H Schenk; International Union of Crystallography

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97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. W. , 1981, 32, 583. N.. 79. Orr, if:""""J. , 1960, 38, 668. Piirma, I. C. in Emulsion PolymeriZation, Eds. I. L. , 1976. Connor, P. , 1971, 37, 642. A. , 1978, 16, 677. S. , in Polymer Colloids II, Ed. M. Fitch, Plenum, New York, 1980. , 1969, 31, 19. Piirma, I. , 1980 . , 90. B. H. in Surfactants in Chemical/Process Engineering, Eds. D. T. E. O. , 1988,263-314. , Herbeck, R. , 1956, ~ 334. , in Polymer Colloids II, Ed. M. Fitch, Plenum, New York, 1978. , 1980, 42, 181.

1 when persulphate-bisulphate-iron initiator was used. 9 when the initiator system was hydrogen peroxide-iron, which indicates greater dependence upon the surfactant concentration in the non ionic system of initiator. This indicates that the sulphate end groups are more effective stabilizers than the hydroxyl groups, and contribute to the stabilization of the growing chain and the nucleated particles. Sutterlin investigated systematically the influence of sodium lauryl sulphate concentration on the number of particles in two series of emulsion polymerizations of several acrylate and methacrylate monomers (87) .

Stable aqueous dispersions of synthetic polymers have also been produced by copolymerizing 2-sulphoethyl methacrylate, and alkyl sulphonic acid and its salts with vinyl monomers in water, typically these latices have excellent stability to added electrolyte, mechanical shear, hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal degradation and freezing-and-thawing with lower concentrations of functional groups, and their surface tensions are higher than those made with conventional surfactants, thus their foaming is less.

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